Chapter 1: Clean H2 for Industry illustrates the way we can produce hydrogen with low greenhouse gas emissions and then use it in industrial applications.
So what projects are there? Which ones should be supported by European policies?
The next generation of hydrogen projects must be low-carbon.
International Projects of Common European Interest
Some of the projects illustrated in the map above are pieces of International Projects of Common European Interest (IPCEIs). For instance, the H2 Sines project is connected to the IPCEI named ‘Green Flamingo’, which aims to develop an Iberian green hydrogen export hub connected to the Port of Rotterdam via a maritime route[i].
While some IPCEIs have a clear cut case for the production of renewable hydrogen due to their potential for renewable electricity generations, other IPCEIs such as the ‘Blue Danube’, [ii] and ‘Green Octopus’, [iii] could have challenges ensuring all of the renewable electricity to reach the scales they aim for.
Other relevant projects
H2 production with SMR and CCS in the Netherlands, to be used in the chemical industry. Projected CO2 emission reductions are projected to be 2.2 Mt per year in by 2026 to 4.3 Mt per year by 2031.[iv]
New wind farms in North Sea to provide electricity for a large-scale electrolyser in Eemshaven (3-4 GW of wind electricity to 2030, 10 GW to 2040).[v]
Realisation of a large pilot (on a ~ 100 MW scale) and a large-scale green hydrogen factory (on a ~ GW scale) by 2025. Hydrogen from SMR+CCS is used in the transition to electrolysis hydrogen from renewable electricity. [vi]
Puertollano H2R project
100 MW “Puertollano II” solar field for electrolysis, with the aim to produce exclusively green ammonia (fertiliser) by 2021. [vii]
The climate performance of projects needs to be monitored
While there is no shortage of plans for hydrogen production, the progress of the projects will need to be followed to ensure they are producing truly low-carbon hydrogen.
For more practical information on how to quantify the climate impact of hydrogen production, read our papers on the EU Hydrogen Strategy and Sustainability Standards for Hydrogen from Electricity.
[i] Hydrogen for Climate Action. 2020. Available at: https://www.hydrogen4climateaction.eu/projects
[ii] Hydrogen for Climate Action . 2019. Available at : https://static1.squarespace.com/static/5d3f0387728026000121b2a2/t/5dbfe6477d73c16ddb6d2c5e/1572857419557/2019.10.09+H2+for+CA_Blue+Danube_final.pdf
[iii] Hydrogen for Climate Action. 2019a. Available at : https://static1.squarespace.com/static/5d3f0387728026000121b2a2/t/5d9f2b52965fb51f8c797156/1570712407675/8.D+GreenOctopus+project.pdf
[iv] Deltaliqs. 2019. Feasibility study report. Available at: https://www.deltalinqs.nl/document/ h-vision-eindrapport-blue-hydrogenas-accelerator
[v] Gasunie. 2020. Europe’s largest green hydrogen project starts in Groningen. Available at: https://www.gasunie.nl/en/news/europes-largest-green-hydrogen-project-starts-in-groningen
[vi] TKI Nieuw Gas. 2020. Overview of Hydrogen Projects in the Netherlands. Available at : https://www.topsectorenergie.nl/sites/default/files/uploads/TKI%20Gas/publicaties/Overview%20Hydrogen%20projects%20in%20the%20Netherlands%20versie%201mei2020.pdf
[vii] Ammonia Energy. 2020. Solar ammonia available in Spain from 2021. Available at : https://www.ammoniaenergy.org/articles/solar-ammonia-available-in-spain-from-2021/